عنوان مقاله [English]
Social Security is one of the criteria is very important in urban life and somehow one of the main needs of cities for the life of its citizens. Usually, in urban environments, physical factors play the most role in increasing or reducing self-esteem.Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of physical and environmental standards on social security in urban neighborhoods trying to Improve and enhance the level of social security in urban neighborhoods is a positive step in order to achieve a high level of urban security. The type of applied research and descriptive - analytical method. The sample size for two selected neighborhoods of Rokni and Khezr as the neighborhoods were identified by using Arc GIS software and Hot Spot and Cold Spot maps of Hamedan, respectively (245 and 345) using the formula Cochran was obtained. The sample size is calculated by residents of these two neighborhoods in Hamedan. The sampling method is also simple random. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. One-sample analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression analysis (HMR) was used. The main question of this research is that which criteria for physical impact on social security more residents and citizens. The results of this study show that the type of structure and organization of urban communities and, most importantly, the permeability of urban neighborhoods in reducing urban crime and increasing social security has a great effect. For this reason, the suggestion of this study is to provide solutions in general, increasing environmental monitoring and ultimately leads to the promotion of social security in urban neighborhoods.
11. ARC GIS. 2007. Urban Design and Management for Crime Prevention, ARC GIS– Action SAFEPOLIS.
12. Blobaum, A., and Hunecke, M. 2005. Perceived danger in urban public space-The Impacts of Physical Features and Personal Factors, Environment and Behavior, 37: 465-486.
13. Beeler, J.N. 2011. Security Planning for Public Spaces: testing a proposed CPTED rating instrument in Berlin, Germany, A thesis presented to the graduate school of the university of Florida in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of arts in urban and regional planning.
14. Crowe, T.D. 2000. Crime prevention through environmental design: Applications of architectural design and space management concepts. Butterworth-Heinemann.
15. Carmona, M., Heath, T., Taner, O., and Tiesdell., S. 2003. “Public Places, Urban Spaces”. Oxford: Architectural Press.
16. Cozens, P. M., & Saville, G., and Hillier, D. 2005. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): a review and modern bibliography, Journal of Property Management, 23: 328-356.
17. Clancey, G. 2011. Crime prevention programs/initiatives found to be particularly valuable and relevant in Australia.
18. John, M., Lubuva, J., and Mtani, A. 2004. “Urban Space and Security: A Case of the Dar es Salaam ,Safety Audits for Women, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, PP 13-17.
19. Jacobs, J. 1965. The Dead and Life of Great American Cities, New York, Random House.
20. King, G. and Murray, C. 2002. Rethinking Human Security. Political Science Quarterly. 116: 4.
21. Lubuva, J., and Mtani, A. 2004. Urban Space and Security: A Case of the Dar es Salaam, Safety Audits for Women, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
22. Merigan, H.L. 2013. Hot-Spot Policing and the Use of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design.
23. Murray, A.T., McGuffog, I., Western, J.S., and Mullins, P. 2001. Exploratory spatial data analysis techniques for examining urban crime implications for evaluating treatment. British Journal of criminology, 41(2): 309-329.
24. Minnery, John Lim Bill. 2005. Measuring Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ،Jurnal of Architectural And Plannig Research, Vol. 330.
25. Newman, O. 1973. "Defensible Space: People and Design in the Violent City", London, Architectural, Press.
26. Nemeth, J., and Schmidt, S. 2007. Toward a Methodology for Measuring the Security of Publicly Accessible Spaces, Journal of the American Planning Association, 73(3): 283-297.
27. Park, H. 2010. Designing out Crime in South Korea: Qualitative Analysis of Contemporary CPTED-Related Issues, Asia Pacific Journal of Police & Criminal Justice, 8(2): 21-48.
28. Petrella, A., and Laura. 2004. “Urban Space and Security Policies: between Inclusion and Privatization”. UN-HABITAT, World Urban Forum, Barcelona, Spain.
29. Rothrock ,Sara, E. 2010. Antiterrorism design and public safety: reconciling CPTED with the post، Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning.
30. Renauer, B.C. 2007. Reducing Fear of Crime: Citizen, Police, or Government Responsibility?, The Journal of Police Quarterly, 10(1): 41-62.
31. Reis, A. et al. 2003. "Accessibility and security Syntatic and perce ptual analysis in two low incom housing estates". 4th international Space syntax symposium. London.
32. Robinson, M. 1996. The theoretical of CPTED25 years of Responses to .Ray Jeffry, edited by: William laufer and Freda Adler, Appalachian state university Department of political science and criminal justice.
33. Schweitzer, J.H. et.al. 1977. "The Impact of the Built Environment on Crime and Fear of Crime in Urban Neighborhoods", Journal of Urban Technology, 6: 3.
34. Timothy, C.O. 2006. Physical Deterioration, Disorder, and Crime, Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17: 173-187.
35. Trancik, R. 1986. Finding lost space. New York: van nostrand reinhold.
36. Wilson, J. and Killing, G. 1982. Broken Windows, Atlantic Monthly.
37. Zukin, S. 1995. The Cultuer of Cities, New York, Blakwell publishers.