Evaluation of smart sustainable urban regeneration in the central context of Tabriz city

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Marand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marand, Iran



Today, all officials involved with the challenges of city sustainability have accepted the idea of a smarter city, using more technologies, creating better living conditions and protecting the environment for a better quality of life. The central part of the metropolis of Tabriz is based on Region 8 and part of Region 10, a historical-cultural area with an area of 286 hectares and a population of about 40 thousand people in 8 neighbourhoods. This research was compiled to evaluate and explain the regeneration of the central part of Tabriz city with the approach of smart growth and in line with the sustainable development of problematic neighbourhoods in the 8th district of Tabriz metropolis. The present review is methodologically practical, to describe and analyze the goals of regeneration based on library studies. The statistical population of the research includes experts and people living in the central context. In the first part, the Delphi method was used by asking experts. In the second part, the structural equation method of SPSS and AMOS software is used. According to the results of using the scales of design, pedestrian-oriented, intergenerational justice in the actual situation and 3 indicators of management and productivity, stable and value-creating jobs are in the potential situation. Also, two environmental indicators with the most direct and indirect effects and a cultural index have been decisive in the regeneration with the smart growth approach in the central part of Tabriz city. Therefore, in the regeneration of the central part, the studied indicators should be used simultaneously and integrated into the reconstruction projects of the central fabric of the city to lead to smart sustainability
Extended Abstract
Smart growth is considered a lever for revitalizing neighborhoods and urban centers. In a general scenario of smart growth, knowing the time and resources of investment provides a new and sustainable life in the city center and worn-out and old textures. Moreover, finally, it will improve the quality of urban neighborhoods, especially worn-out ones, and revive them. Tabriz metropolis, one of the most important and largest cities in the country, with a long history of settlement, especially the central and old texture, due to developments in information and communication technology, extensive environmental, social, and economic changes in terms of time requirements, the traditional texture of roads, Deterioration of residential units, lack of equipment, infrastructure and urban services and environmental problems have caused the failure and physically turned into inefficient and problematic textures. Urban planning and development science must adopt a new decision and approach to face the existing and complex issues of worn-out texture. The main problem of the research is to evaluate and explain the regeneration of the central texture and strengthen them in line with the sustainable development of the problematic neighborhoods of Tabriz metropolis according to the solutions and principles of smart urban growth. Therefore, the main goal of this research is to answer the following question:
- What are the effective indicators and components in the regeneration of the central texture of Tabriz metropolis with a smart growth approach?
This research is applied and fundamental in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical. The collection methods are based on documentary and library studies, surveys, and interviews. In the first part, qualitative data was prepared with an open questionnaire and through interviews, as well as the review of documents and quantitative data used in this research numerically and through the weighting of Delphi questionnaires based on the
consensus index model to determine importance, certainty, and priority. The panel members were 19 people (including 5 university faculty members, 7 field research experts, 4 executive experts, and 3 graduate students) selected based on the non-probability (targeted) method. In the second part, Cronbach's alpha method was exerted to measure the reliability of the questions, which was obtained as 0.89. In order to evaluate the validity of the questionnaire, the Lawshe method was exploited. The statistical population of the second part includes District 8 of Tabriz, which is the central texture of the city and is equal to 34,231 people. According to Cochran's formula, the sample size was equal to 379 people.
Results and discussion
In the next step, path analysis was performed using AMOS 23 software to compare the integrated model with the hypotheses. The results of the path analysis, while verifying the structures, show that the value of the index of the critical ratio to the degree of freedom (CMIN/DF) is equal to 4.01, which is an optimal value for the model fit. Also, the goodness of fit index (GFI) is 0.952, which indicates the acceptability of this amount for the optimal fit of the model. The value of the root means the square error of estimation (RMSEA) is 0.065, which is acceptable because it is smaller than 0.08 and indicates the confirmation of the research model. Also, the Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) is 0.917, the comparative fit index (CFI) is 0.92, and the normalized parsimonious fit index (PNFI) is 0.882, which all indicate that the fit and verification of the research model are desirable.
Therefore, none of the objects are removed and remain in the model. Therefore, it is confirmed that the factor structure of regeneration indicators with the smart growth approach has reliability and construct validity. Also, the second-order factor analysis shows that the factor loadings of all regeneration indicators with the smart growth approach are greater than 0.4 and are significant at the 95% probability level. According to the results, the environmental dimension with a factor loading of 0.94 has the most significant effect on urban regeneration with the smart growth approach in the central texture of Tabriz city. After that, quality of life with a factor loading of 0.92, social dimension with a factor loading of 0.88, economic dimension with a factor loading of 0.83, physical dimension with a factor loading of 0.81, transportation dimension with a factor loading of 0.74 and cultural dimension in order with a factor loading of 0.72, are in the following ranks.
According to the final structural model results, the environmental index has the highest value, with a direct effect of 0.594 and an indirect effect of 0.275. Moreover, after that, respectively, the quality of life index with a direct effect of 0.513 and an indirect effect of 0.236, a social index with a direct effect of 0.476 and an indirect effect of 0.217, an economic index with a direct effect of 0.451 and an indirect effect of 0.222, Physical with the direct effect of 0.435 and indirect effect of 0.205, mobility index with the direct effect of 0.373 and indirect effect of 0.182 and cultural index with the effect of direct values of 0.295 and indirect effect of 0.153 are influential in regeneration with smart growth approach in the central part of Tabriz city.
In this research, seven main indicators related to the subject were investigated. The results showed that the environmental index with the most significant direct and indirect effect is the focus of the evaluation. After that, dimensions and indicators of quality of life, social index, economic index, physical index, mobility index, and cultural index have been influential. According to the results, the urban environment index was analyzed as the most important factor at a high level, and this means that for urban regeneration with a smart growth approach, improving the environmental and physical conditions in the worn-out and central texture of Tabriz city in the current situation is a priority. It is first. This is the most well-known part of regeneration with a smart growth approach. The analysis results show that this is not the case only in the case of transportation infrastructure. However, more comprehensive urban infrastructure such as the urban landscape, open spaces, green and parks, etc. are also crucial in improving the physical conditions of the infrastructure. Also, this study's results show that the economic sector's importance is as important as improving the physical conditions of the infrastructure. In addition, in the worn-out texture of District 8 of Tabriz city, the sociocultural sector is essential, and the revival of historical and cultural resources is considered one of the urban regeneration options.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific.


  1. Al Shawabkeh, R.K, (2018), New Urban Regeneration for the City of Amman Using Sustainable Urban Design Principles: Al-Abdali Area as a Case Stud. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 13(19), 14345-14358. https://dx.doi.org/10.37622/IJAER/13.19.2018.14345-1435
  2. Baker, M., Coaffee, J., & Sherriff, G. (2017). Achieving successful participation in the new UK spatial planning system. Planning Practice and Research, 22(1), 79-93.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02697450601173371
  3. Balampanidis, D., Maloutas, T., Papatzani, E., Pettas, D., (2019). Informal urban regeneration as a way out of the crisis? Airbnb in Athens and its effects on space and society. Urban Res. Pract. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/17535069.2019.1600009
  4. Battisti, A., Barnocchi, A., & Iorio, S. (2019). Urban Regeneration Process: The Case of a Residential Complex in a Suburb of Rome, Italy. Sustainability, 11(21), 6122. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11216122
  5. Brunetta, G., Ceravolo, R., Barbieri, C.R, Borghini, A., Carlo, F., de, Mela, A., Beltramo, S, Longhi, A., Giulia Lucia, J.D., Ferraris, S., Pezzoli, A., Quagliolo, C., Salata, S., & Voghera, A, (2019), Territorial Resilience: Toward a Proactive Meaning for Spatial Planning. Sustainability, 11, 2286. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11082286
  6. Brunetta, G., Faggian, A., & Caldarice, O. (2021). Bridging the Gap: The Measure of Urban Resilience. Sustainability, 13, 1-18. 1113. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13031113
  7. Chan, H. H., Hu, T-S., & Fan, P, (2019). Social sustainability of urban regeneration led by industrial land redevelopment in Taiwan. European Planning Studies, 27(7), 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1080/09654313.2019.1577803
  8. Diaz-Sarachaga, J.M. (2019). Analysis of the Global Resilience Assessment Frameworks for the Urban Realm, ICSD 5th International Conference on Sustainable Development, 17-21 April 2019, Belgrade.
  9. Ertan, T., & Eğercioğlu, Y., (2016). Historic City Center Urban Regeneration: Case of Malaga and Kemeraltı, Izmir. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 223(289), 601-607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.05.362
  10. Huovila, A., Bosch, P., & Airaksinen, M, (2019). Comparative analysis of standardized indicators for Smart sustainable cities: What indicators and standards to use and when?. Cities, 89, 141-153.
  11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2019.01.029
  12. Kim, H. W., Aaron McCarty, Dakota., Lee, J. (2020). Enhancing Sustainable Urban Regeneration through Smart Technologies: An Assessment of Local Urban Regeneration Strategic Plans in Korea. Sustainability, 12(17), 6868. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12176868
  13. Kimberly, C. (2022). Urban regenerative thinking and practice: a systematic literature review. Building Research & Information, 50(3). doi:1080/10/2021/09613218.1922266.
  14. Le Dantec, C. A. (2015). Planning with crowdsourced data: Rhetoric and representation in transportation planning. In: Proceedings of the 18th ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work & social computing (CSCW15), 1717–1727. New York, NY, USA: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/2675133.2675212
  15. Litman, T. (2022). Understanding Smart Growth Savings, Evaluating Economic Savings and Benefits of Compact Development, and How They Are Misrepresented by Critics, Victoria Transport Policy Institute.
  16. Lucaciu, L.O. (2018). A Look at the Evaluation Framework for Smart Growth Programmers. Revista Românească pentru Educaţie Multidimensională, 10(3), 60-76. DOI:10.18662/rrem/63
  17. Luiza, L., & Schuch De, A. (2021). Drivers and Barriers for the development of Smart Sustainable Cities: A Systematic Literature Review. In 14th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance (ICEGOV 2021), October 06-08, 2021, Athens, Greece. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 11 Pages.https://doi.org/10.1145/3494193.3494250
  18. Lv, X., Zhang, S., Li, A., & Li, J, B. (2017) Research on Smart Growth of Sustainable Cities Based on Information Entropy and Super-Efficiency DEA Model. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 5(5), 1198-1214. DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2017.55103
  19. Makieła, Z.J., Stuss, M.M., Mucha-Ku´s, K., Kinelski, G., Budzi´ nski, M., & Michałek, J. (2022). Smart City 0/4: Sustainable Urban Development in the Metropolis GZM. Sustainability, 14, 1-19. 3516. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063516
  20. Mirzakhani, A., Turró, M., & Jalilisadrabad, S. (2021). Key stakeholders and operation processes in the regeneration of historical urban fabrics in Iran. Cities, 254(292). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2021.103362
  21. Ng, M.K., Koksal, C., Wong, C., & Tang, Y. (2022), Smart and Sustainable Development from a Spatial Planning Perspective: The Case of Shenzhen and Greater Manchester. Sustainability, 14, 1-28. 3509. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063509
  22. Panteleeva, M., & Borozdina, S. (2022), Sustainable Urban Development Strategic Initiatives. Sustainability, 14(1), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010037
  23. Peponi, A & Morgado, P. (2020). Smart and Regenerative Urban Growth: A Literature Network Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(7), 2463. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17072463
  24. Radogna, D., & Romano, M. (2019). Resilience in Housing Regeneration for a Smart City Model. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 778, 226-235. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-94199-8_22
  25. Romanelli, M., Ferrara, M., Metallo, C., Reina, R., Varriale, L., Ventura, M., ... & Buonocore, F. (2022, August). Advancing urban regeneration projects for sustainable development and intellectual capital. In European Conference on Knowledge Management (Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 1002-1009). https://doi.org/10.34190/eckm.23.2.543
  26. Ruá, M.J., Huedo, P., & Cabeza, M. (2021), A model to prioritise sustainable urban regeneration in vulnerable areas using SWOT and CAME methodologies. J Hous and the Built Environ 36, 1603-1627. DOI:10.1007/s10901-020-09813-w
  27. Wang, Y., & Fukuda, H. (2019). Sustainable Urban Regeneration for Shrinking Cities: A Case from Japan. Sustainability, 11(5), 1-14. 1505. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11051505
  28. Wang, C., Niu, B., Zhang, Q., Tian, W., & Liu, j. (2017). An Evaluation System of Urban Smart Growth in Wuhou District of Chengdu, China. Journal of Material Science, 5(4), 127-135. DOI: 10.4172/2321-6212.100020
  29. Wilson, A., Tewdwr-Jones, M., & Comber, R. (2017). Urban planning, public participation and digital technology: App development as a method of generating citizen involvement in local planning processes. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 46(2), 286-302. https://doi.org/10.1177/2399808317712515
  30. Xuili, G., & Maliene, V. (2021). A Review of Studies on Sustainable Urban Regeneration. EPiC Series in Built Environment, 2, 615-625. https://doi.org/10.29007/zsvn
  31. Zhou, L., Wang, T., Hu, J., & Li, J. (2017). All-Arranged Polygon Graphic Index Method-based Appraisal Model for Urban Smart Growth, 2nd International Conference on New Energy and Renewable Resources (ICNERR 2017), 223-230, 978-1-60595-470-7. DOI:10.12783/dteees/icnerr2017/13305
  32. Zijun, Y. (2019). Review of the Basic Theory and Evaluation Methods of Sustainable Urban Renewal. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 281, 012017. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/281/1/012017
  33. Basiri, M., Mousavi, M. S., & Husseinzadeh Dalir, K. (2017). Evaluation and Prioritization of Intervention in Neighborhoods of central District of Tabriz. Geography (Regional Planning), 7(4), 115-131. Dor: 20.1001.1.22286462.1396.[In Persian]
  34. Buchani, M. H., Bahrampuri, A., & Jahanshahi, B. (2021). Re-creating the historical context based on interfaith development; A solution in the socio-economic sustainability of the city. Economics and Urban Planning, 2 (1), 19-27. DOI: 10.22034/UE.2021.02.01.03[In Persian]
  35. Faramarzi, M., & Zeynali Azim, A. (2019). Evaluation of Tabriz Performance Managerial City after the Establishment of Tabriz Islamic Council. Geography (Regional Planning), 9(1), 445-458.
  36. DOI: 20.1001.1.22286462.1397.[In Persian]
  37. Hejazi, S. J. (2020). Assessing people's participation in the implementation of the urban regeneration plan (Case study: worn-out central texture of Ahvaz city). Geographical Engineering of Territory, 4(1), 132-117. DOI: JGET-2004-1160[In Persian]
  38. Jaliz, G., hoseinzadeh, K., & nazmfar, H. (2022). On the analysis of the strategic role of intermediate development in the recreation of urban decadent (worn out) districts (fabrics) (case study: metropolis of Tabriz, district 8). Journal of Applied researches in Geographical Sciences, 22 (67), 113-135. DOI: 10.52547/jgs.22.67.113[In Persian]
  39. Kamanroodi, M., soleimani, M., zanganeh, A., & sharifjahed, S. (2022). Spatial integration in the regeneration of urban deteriorated texture case study Tehran. Geographical Planning of Space, 12(2), 1-16. DOI: 10.30488/gps.2020.223657.3210[In Persian]
  40. Mahmoudzadeh, H., & abedini iranq, R. (2021). Prioritizing Intelligent Growth Indicators for Identifying Physical Capacities for Infell Development with Emphasis on Scenariotization (Case Study: Region 3 of Tabriz). Journal of Studies of Human Settlements Planning, 16(3), 537-550. DOI: 20.1001.1.25385968.1400.[In Persian]
  41. Mohammadi dost, S., Khanizadeh, M. A., & Zilayi, S. (2017). The Feasibility Applying the Principles of New Urbanism in Sustainable Recreation of Inefficient and Problematic Urban Areas by Emplacing on Smart Growth (Case Study: Central Part of Ahvaz City). Regional Planning, 6(24), 215-230. DOI: Dor: 20.1001.1.22516735.1395.[In Persian]
  42. Seyed Baranji, S. K., Tabibian, M., & Bahraini, S. H. (2021). Assessing the realization of the principles and criteria of sustainable regeneration in the direction of planning and sustainable development of the historical context (case study: the historical-central context of Rasht city). New Attitudes in Human Geography, 13 (2) serial 50, 25-42. Dor: 20.1001.1.66972251.1400. [In Persian]
  43. Shafaati, A., Valizade, R., Rahimi, A., & Panahi, A. (2022). The Role of Smart Urban Development in the Development of the Dilapidated Areas of Tabriz City: A Case Study of 8th District of Tabriz. Geography and Environmental Planning, 33(1), 113-132. DOI: 10.22108/gep.2021.125940.1374[In Persian]
  44. Wafai, Abuzar (2021). Explaining the contexts of realizing sustainability in old and worn-out contexts with an integrated urban regeneration approach (case study: the old context of Kashan city, thematic axes). Iranian and Islamic City Studies, 11 (41), 55-88. Dor: 20.1001.1.2228639.1399. [In Persian]
  45. Zainali Azim, Ali; Hatami Golzari, Elham; Karmi, Islam and Babazadeh Escui, Solmaz (2021), Assessment of environmental sustainability of Tabriz city based on environmental indicators of smart urban growth, sustainability. development and environment, 2 (3), 41-59. Dor: 20.1001.1.24233846.1400.[In Persian]