Analyzing Determinants of Agricultural Sustainability of Wheat Cultivators under Rural Cooperative Productions in Golestan Province

Document Type : Research Paper



Introduction The most commonly used definition of sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED 1987). To be sustainable, a developmental process should integrate three dimensions, namely environmental, economic, and social: environmental sustainability is achieved through the protection and effective management of natural resources; economic sustainability is attained by a mix of occupations that provide long-term and stable incomes; and social sustainability is ensured by means of active community participation and a strong civil society (Goodland 1995). There is a growing consensus that the long-term sustainability of agriculture and production systems can be enhanced through locally-based planning and management at the farm scale, therefore within farming systems analysis it is being widely speculated that some forms of agricultural management are more sustainable than others (Dalsgaard et al., 1995). Identifying causative factors of agricultural sustainability provides a framework for integrating knowledge and perspectives of the social and natural sciences into planning, policy and decision-making at farm scale. Regarding the low knowledge on factors affecting on sustainability of agriculture, the main aim of this research is to analyze factors influencing on sustainability of agriculture among wheat cultivators under rural productions cooperatives of Golestan Province.   Methodology This applied research is based on quantitative paradigm, in which the kind of research was descriptive and that survey method was used. Theoretical framework is formulated based on previous literature review related sustainable agricultural. To collect primary data, the questionnaire employed as research tool. Content validity of the research questionnaire was confirmed by comments of sustainable agricultural experts and faculty members. Calculated Coronbach Alpha coefficient as indication of questionnaire’s reliability was equal to 0.74 for main constructs of questionnaire. The statistical population of this study consisted of all wheat cultivators under rural productions cooperatives in Golestan Province. Sample size was determinated by Cochran's formula (n=356) and the sample was selected by multistage random sampling with optimize allocation among cooperatives. Descriptive statistics (means, standard deviations and percent of frequency) and inferential statistic to analyze set of indices and variables including factor, cluster and discriminated analysis techniques were used to accomplish two objectives of the study.   Discussion Descriptive results showed framers’ age average is 44.7, average family size is 6.3, and the average farming experience is 27.3 years. The average of ownership land size and cultivated lands in the studied area were 7.4 and 5.8 hectares respectively. The average land plot and size was 3.4 and 2.6 respectively. The average performance of wheat is 4.3 ton per hectare. Regarding technical knowledge 84.1% of farmers were in low situation.  The results of factor analysis (Eigenvalue greater than 1 and a factor loading greater than 0.5) showed that, six factors named: production resources management for sustainable agriculture (17.81% variance), supportive and services (17.47% variance), environment and ecosystem (11.94% variance), knowledge and education (10.78% variance), social and economical (6.40% variance) that explain 73.56 percent of variance of sustainability among respondents. The results of cluster analysis showed 73.88 percents of farmers practiced under unsustainable conditions. Result of discriminate analysis showed that two factors named “production resources management for sustainable agriculture” and “knowledge and education management for sustainable agriculture” have more importance to discriminate sustainable and unsustainable farmers.   Conclusion In conclusion, in order for sustainability of farming system to become more widespread in province, it is necessary all sub-system linked to sustainable agricultural activity be considered. In the case of Golestan province, Farmer need to be made aware of sustainable agricultural practices, quality, quantity and standards of using production inputs especially chemical fertilizer, herbicide and pesticide, export demand and expectation, as well as the farmer organization and union and its function. At same time it is very important that farmer be provided with financial, credit and complementary services and support in transition to sustainable agriculture and given guarantees regarding marketing of produce. Any government policy that seeks to promote sustainability should offer incentives to farmers, to invest more on farming, and to use natural resources sustainably. Formal and informal education is also necessary to increase public awareness of sustainability. Therefore farmers will ultimately bear the responsibility for implementing the policies and guidelines necessary for sustainable agriculture. Moreover agricultural extension-education services should be strengthened by improving sustainability technical knowledge, skill and idea.  


1-ایزدی‌خرامه، ح. 1375. «بررسی پیامدهای تجمیع روستاهای تخریب شده بر اثر بلایای طبیعی در استان فارس (نمونه مورد مطالعه: شهرک ایثار)» مجموعه مقالات ساماندهی روستاهای پراکنده، انتشارات بنیاد مسکن انقلاب اسلامی، صفحات 112 تا 162.
2-اعرابی، م.، آقازاده، هـ. و نظامی وند چگینی، هـ. 1387. «دستنامه برنامه‌ریزی استراتژیک». چاپ دوم .تهران: انتشارات هماگرافیک.
3-دانشنامه مدیریت شهری و روستایی 1387. سازمان شهرداری‌ها و دهیاری‌های کشور.
4-رحمتی، ع.، نظریان، ا. 1389. «آثار اقتصادی-اجتماعی و محیط زیست سکونتگاه‌های مشمول جابه جایی ناشی از ایجاد سدها مطالعه موردی: سد گتوند علیل، رودخانه کارون»، پژوهش‌های محیط زیست، شماره دوم.صص 69-90.
5-رضوانی، م. 1383. «مقدمه‌ای بر برنامه‌ریزی توسعه روستای در ایران»، چاپ اول، تهران: نشر قومس.
6-زیویار،پ. و رجبی، آ. 1387. «گسترش توسعه فضایی و ضرورت ایجاد شهرهای جدید «مطالعه موردی شهر جدید پردیس»، فصل نامه جغرافیایی سرزمین، شماره 19.
7-سجادپور، م.ک. 1384. «چارچوب‌های مفهومی و عملیاتی در مدیریت مهاجرت بین المللی مطالعه موردی ایران»، فصل نامه تحقیقات جغرافیایی، شماره 78، صفحات 9-30.
8-سعیدی، ع. 1377. «مبانی جغرافیای روستایی»، چاپ اول، تهران، انتشارات سمت.
9-سعیدی. ع. 1377. «توسعه پایدار و ناپایداری توسعه روستایی در ایران»، فصل نامه مسکن و انقلاب، شماره 87.
10-سعیدی، ع.، حسینی حاصل، ص. 1388. «شالوده مکان یابی و استقرار روستاهای جدید»، چاپ اول، تهران، انتشارات بنیاد مسکن.
11-سعیدی. ع. 1383. «مسایل و چشم انداز عمران و توسعه روستایی در ایران». مجله انقلاب و مسکن، 1383، شماره 108، صفحات 2-13.
12-سعیدی. ع. 1388. «درسنامه برنامه ریزی روستایی»، تهران، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی
13-سعیدی، ع. 1375. «مجموعه مقالات سامان‌دهی روستاهای پراکنده»، چاپ اول، تهران، انتشارات بنیاد مسکن انقلاب اسلامی. صفحات 406 تا 415.
14-سعیدی، ع. 1391. «پویش ساختاری- کارکردی: رویکردی بدیل در برنامه‌ریزی فضایی» مجله اقتصاد فضا و برنامه ریزی روستایی، دوره اول، شماره 1، صفحات 1 تا 6.
15-گلکار، ک. 1384. «مناسب سازی تکنیک سوات برای کاربرد در طراحی شهری»، مجله صفه، شماره 41.
16-مرکز آمار ایران، 1385. «شناسنامه آبادی‌های کشور، استان لرستان»، شهرستان کوهدشت
17-مرکز آمار ایران 1355-1385. «سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن، استان لرستان»، شهرستان کوهدشت
18-زبردست، ا. 1380. «کاربرد فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی در برنامه ریزی شهری و منطقه ای»، مجله هنرهای زیبا، دوره اول، شماره 10، صفحات 13 تا 21.
19-پژوهشکده سوانح طبیعی، 1388. «ارزشیابی اثرات اجرایی طرح‌هادی روستایی»، چاپ اول، تهران، نشر بنیاد مسکن انقلاب اسلامی.
20-وزارت نیرو- شرکت توسعه منابع آب و نیروی ایران 1382. «مطالعات اجتماعی – اقتصادی و خسارت مخزن سد و نیروگاه برق آبی سیمره»، مهندسین مشاور سبزاندیش پایش (ساپ)
21-اداره جهاد کشاورزی استان لرستان، 1390.
22.Barnett, J., and Webber, M. 2010. Accommodating migration to promote adaptation to climate Change (Policy Research Working Paper 5270). Washington, DC: World Bank. Retrieved From:
23.Croll, E.J. 1999. Involuntary resettlement in China: The local view. China Quarterly, 158, 469-483.
24.World Commission on Dams. 2000. Dams and development: A new framework for decisionmaking. Retrieved from
25.World Bank 2001. Involuntary Resettlement: Operational Policy (OP) 4.12. Washington, DC: World Bank