عنوان مقاله [English]
The housing sector is one of the key pillars and economic sectors with wide direct and indirect effects on the country's economic sectors and macroeconomic variables. The mobility of this sector makes other sectors of an economy prosper. On the other hand, price fluctuations and the formation of the housing bubble hit the actual housing applicants, making it difficult to distribute economic resources on a large scale. In all of this, the expansion of real estate commodities has exacerbated the conflict between the notion of housing as a basic need, once considered a social right. In fact, the interaction of housing market actors, including intermediary investors, shapes the price trend. These actors operate based on conflicting interests and heterogeneous goals. The experiences, attitudes and expectations of the actors affect the housing demand in the market, the periods of boom and bust of the housing market, and finally, the price fluctuations. The city of Ahvaz, as one of the major metropolises of the country, has witnessed profound changes and transformations in its physical, economic, and socio-cultural construction, which including the construction of railways and creation of heavy industries such as steel, oil and gas industries, agro-industry, and the creation of industrial estates cause reconstruction in dimensions of economic, physical, socio-cultural, and urban context in the metropolis of Ahvaz, which effect on the formation and organization of its physical-spatial. According to the issues expressed by recognizing and analyzing the spatial patterns of housing, the investment trend in this sector can be examined more closely and a step towards systematic and planned growth in this field can be taken. Therefore, the present study has been raised in order to answer the following question:
- What is the spatial pattern of housing investment and the distribution of spatial inequalities in housing?
The present study is applied in terms of purpose, and descriptive-analytical in terms of implementation. Library and field studies were used for data collection and GIS software was used for data analysis. Therefore, the research approach in this section is descriptive-analytical, which describes the current situation of housing investment in different areas of Ahvaz. To formulate the research analysis framework, the political economy approach and library resources that were presented in connection with this theoretical approach were used. The reports of Ahwaz urban development plans (comprehensive and detailed plans) obtained through provincial administrations and organizations are used to determine the current pattern of housing investment in Ahvaz. These factors are spatially classified using field harvest data, statistical blocks, and spatial data obtained from Ahvaz city master plan map. The ARC GIS software environment uses the geographical weight regression method, Moran model, and hot spots. Finally, the Change Detection model was used to show changes in housing investment.
Results and discussion
According to the findings of this study in the city of Ahvaz, it can be inferred that the homogeneity of the areas is in terms of the number of residential units in the plots, so that the number of floors does not show a significant difference between the pattern of housing in the city. Concerning the quality of housing and the residential texture in this area, the existence of urban facilities and services in the mentioned areas can be a reason for the existence of more demand and hidden capital in these areas. Despite the high population density, the lack of some services is seen in other areas. Therefore, housing quality in terms of access to services and facilities is indirectly related to the pattern of housing. According to the information obtained from the eight districts of Ahvaz, land and housing prices are very variable; it seems that variables are involved in this difference, which has affected the investment pattern and construction process in the districts of Ahvaz. In relation to the independent variables, the LOCAL R2 value of all the obtained values shows that; The effect of independent variables in the geographical weight regression model varies significantly in the urban areas of Ahvaz; Regression coefficients for the variables of slums, insecure neighborhoods, tenants, youth population ratio, household size, population density, and micro-population are mainly negative, which indicates that with the increase of each of these variables of the amount of investment and construction in The level of urban areas of Ahvaz is decreasing.
The results show extensive spatial differences between the urban areas of Ahvaz. The existing pattern of housing construction and investment has not been commensurate with the growth and development of Ahvaz city, both on a spatial and demographic scale. The political system and urban management in Ahvaz have not been able to meet the demands of different social groups in proportion to their financial capacity. It is interesting to note that the city of Ahvaz has the first rank of marginalization among the cities and provinces of Iran, and the constructions that have taken place in the areas of this city have been done mostly with the attitude and view of capital and the stock market. Finally, the pattern of housing investment in the metropolis of Ahvaz has followed a very unbalanced trend, and in the discussion of housing policy, more groups in the form of ethnic and tribal groups, including Arabs and immigrants and low-income groups of society have left the formal planning system. In addition to macro factors, physical, infrastructural, environmental, economic and social factors have caused a gap in the enjoyment of the most basic right to the city by different groups of concerning residential needs and its physical reflection in the context of marginal textures, brown lands, and worn-out textures, at the level of urban areas of Ahvaz.