نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران
2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای انسانی و آمایش، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
According to development texts, villagers have been at a low level in terms of social and economic conditions in recent decades. On this basis, one of the most important strategies proposed for the sustainability and development of environmental - ecological, socio-cultural, and economic dimensions of rural settlements is to pay attention to the category of entrepreneurship in its different dimensions. In this regard, entrepreneurship in rural areas means using creativity and innovation in agricultural and non-agricultural activities. Given that most villagers do not have access to agricultural land. Therefore, they cannot be entirely dependent on the benefits of agriculture; Therefore, it is necessary to create new activities in their agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, in order to diversify the job opportunities for rural youth, in order to Through creativity and innovation, they identify economic opportunities and turn them into new ideas. And by combining different factors of production, to create a new way of economic activity that leads to positive spatial changes in rural settlements. In other words, entrepreneurship, as an engine of development and transformation of socio-economic dimensions has an important role in the spatial distribution of agricultural and non-agricultural activities and as a result the spatial evolution of rural settlements. Therefore, entrepreneurial actions and activities in the geographical space have many environmental, ecological, social, economic and physical effects. Suppose we pay attention to the potential and capabilities of rural stakeholders to improve the index. Entrepreneurship processes can provide the necessary basis for rural settlements' sustainability and socio-economic balance at the local and regional levels.
The present study was conducted to examine the role of empowerment of rural stakeholders on entrepreneurship and spatial developments in rural settlements of Tarom city. In this quantitative and descriptive-analytical study, data were collected by a questionnaire. The study's statistical population includes 95 villages in Tarom city, which according to the 2016 census, has 36,817 people and is equivalent to 11,412 households. In this study, 37 villages were randomly selected to determine the random sample size to complete the questionnaire at the village level.
Results and discussion
The empowerment of rural stakeholders primarily influences entrepreneurship development. Because empowerment process by changing knowledge, skills, attitudes of the stakeholders, strengthening and flourishing capacities and inner talents, improving their behavior, and perceiving the benefits of entrepreneurship development cause a more significant involvement in rural entrepreneurship.
On this basis, the present study was conducted to examine the position of empowerment of rural stakeholders on entrepreneurship and spatial developments in rural settlements of Tarom city. In order to achieve this goal, the thematic literature and research background were reviewed, and finally, the theoretical framework of the research was presented. In this regard, five hypotheses were tested based on the assumed relationships in the sample. In the first hypothesis, the relationship between rural stakeholder empowerment indicators and entrepreneurship was assessed. The results indicate a significant relationship between the total indicators of rural stakeholder empowerment and entrepreneurship in the study area. But, the significance of the relationship between empowerment and entrepreneurship is due to the low weighted average of the indicators. In other words, the lack of attention to empowerment facilitators has led to rural stakeholders not being able to participate in the entrepreneurial process. In the second to fifth hypotheses, the relationship between the effective category of entrepreneurship and the Impressive category of spatial changes in rural settlements was tested. The results showed a significant relationship between both effective and Impressive categories. So, despite being significant, the study's findings indicate the low level of entrepreneurship in the environmental - ecological, social and cultural, economic, and physical dimensions of rural settlements in the study area.
The findings showed that the effect of stakeholder empowerment on entrepreneurship and spatial development of rural settlements in the study area is in a downward trend. In other words, the lack of attention to improving the indicators of the method and the sense of empowerment has caused the rural stakeholders to have less participation in the entrepreneurial process. As a result, there has been no change in rural settlements' environmental-ecological, socio-cultural, economic, and physical dimensions. On this basis, entrepreneurship in the field of unstable space and lack of attention to the priorities and tendencies of rural stakeholders has challenged the improvement of space dimensions, as it has destroyed the sustainable opportunities of material and immaterial resources in terms of social and economic functions. Therefore, paying attention to the indicators of the method and the sense of empowerment of rural stakeholders such as education and awareness-raising, entrepreneurial knowledge and skills, the delegation of power and authority, access to resources, significance, competence, impact and trust and confidence in order to improve their participation in the entrepreneurial process in line with the spatial evolution of rural settlements are considered necessary.