نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران
2 دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Empowerment with emphasis on social actions is one of the influential approaches in promoting and organizing informal settlements that require the involvement of all stakeholders as well as the establishment of facilitation offices within these settlements in order to achieve the desired goals realistically. Given the subject's importance, the present study's purpose is to present a model of empowerment of informal settlements in the Tabriz metropolis area based on a partnership and facilitation approach. The informal settlement has been one of the problems of the Tabriz metropolis since 1340 because of the black spot in the Tabriz city. In the metropolis of Tabriz, immigrants have managed to build a living place, working and socializing informally. People who have not been integrated into the city for some reason have inevitably chosen to live on the outskirts of cities and informal lands. This way of living in Tabriz is increasing rapidly. The most important of these textures are parts of the north of the city (Beheshti, Seylab, Idelo), northwest of the city (Tabriz Grand Park), south of the city (end of Maralan and Taleghani streets), and southwestern part of the city (Akhmaqaye neighborhood). They show that they are expanding rapidly with their mechanism. The area of this type of settlements in Tabriz is 400 hectares, with a population of over 450,000. The flats of these settlements have given the Tabriz metropolitan figure a bad view of the palace through tasteful and bohemian structures. Their main features are the setting up of some inappropriate lands with steep slopes and very irregular topography. Complete irregularities in the communication network, narrow passageways, extraordinarily small pieces and lack of urban facilities and non-residential uses and physical disruption to the main city are characteristics of the informal settlement areas of the Tabriz metropolis. Adverse landscape, low levels of public health, lack of formal employment and adequate income, the existence of small sub-cultures, population density, lack of educational and welfare facilities, low levels of literacy and education, addiction, cultural consequences, housing confidence in natural disasters, development of negative environmental impacts, and lagging in sustainable development are the major problems of these settlements.
The research method in the present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in nature, which for data analysis has been used of structural equation analysis model in Amos software. The statistical population of the study also includes citizens of informal settlements and managers, officials and experts on urban issues, as well as academic elites, which the sample size of citizens based on Cochran's formula is 384 people. Due to the uncertainty of the statistical population of managers and elites, Cohen's formula at 95% confidence level was used to determine the sample size and the statistical sample size was estimated 100 people.
The formation of economic and spatial dichotomy, especially after the land reform, has increased the process of urbanization and consolidated numerous problems, including poverty, homelessness and homelessness, and the formation and expansion of informal settlements in the Tabriz metropolis. These settlements comprise about one-third of the population of the Tabriz metropolitan area that experiences adverse conditions in various social, economic, cultural, environmental and physical dimensions. In order to organize and enhance these settlements and empower them in different dimensions, there is a need to have a good understanding of the existing situation and mobilize all stakeholders and take advantage of indigenous-local facilities. Based on the results of the data analysis and research data, it can be said that institutional capacity building, institutional synergy and socialism emphasize the flexibility of urban management, emphasis on new attitudes, reliance on relativism, cognitive deliberation, and targeted deliberation, improving public attitudes. The establishment of local institutions, inter-institutional interaction and participation, adoption of diverse approaches in the management system, strengthening of local-local mechanisms and utilization of public involvement in the regulation and control of resources are essential prerequisites for achieving participation and facilitation. Participation and facilitation also enhance local community confidence and self-reliance in resolving local problems, empowering people and NGOs, organizing local communities to address their problems and issues, and improving public confidence and responsibility. Together, promote people's outreach to social neighborhoods and interact with urban actors, improve residents' social relationships, engage people in planning decision making, enhance local development knowledge and skills, and analyze community mobilization. Local, increase knowledge and skills and frame The Local Development Authority (LEA) team needs assessment and prioritization and enhances the local development agency's knowledge, skills, and capabilities on defining, implementing, and evaluating interventions and plans for empowering informal settlements in the Tabriz metropolitan area.
The findings of the study indicate that the most impact on participation and facilitation approach is related to institutional capacity building with a coefficient of 0.81. After that, institutional synergy and socialism were respectively coefficients of 0.62 and 0.57. The results also show that participation and facilitation can enhance local community confidence and self-reliance in resolving local problems, empowering people and nongovernmental organizations, organizing local communities to address their problems and issues, and improving public trust and authorities have a key role to play in empowerment the informal settlements of the Tabriz metropolis.