نوع مقاله : مقاله مستخرج از رساله دکتری
1 گروه جغرافیا و برنامهریزی شهری، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
2 گروه جغرافیا، واحد یادگار امام خمینی (ره) شهر ری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The policies and rules based on which cities are governed are influenced by legal and political discourses and can cause political and party conflicts. In the field of legal frameworks, ambiguities governing citizenship rights and planning tend to create inequality, and governance is necessary to ensure stable governance in the process of good urban management. In terms of purpose, this research is of an applied type, which was carried out by descriptive-analytical method and based on library studies and field investigations in the framework of the analytical-case model. Survey techniques, questionnaire tools, and interviews with the Delphi community have been used. The statistical sample size using the available sampling was 27 experts with the purposeful sampling method. In order to analyze the data, SPSS software was used, and Smart PLS software was used to model the structural equations with the partial least squares approach to evaluate the conceptual model of the research. Also, the future research method has been used to explain the key drivers and future scenarios using the structural and cross analysis method. The results of the analysis of the path coefficients related to the studied dimensions show that the justice index has the highest effect, followed by the indicators of responsibility, consensus-oriented, transparency, participation, efficiency and effectiveness, legality, and then accountability, which have the least effect on the urban management structure of Region 20. In the second part, by identifying and analyzing the effective drivers and compiling possible scenarios, from the total of 237 situations governing the scenario page, 132 situations and 55.70% are favorable situations, 64 situations and 27% are in static mode and 41 situations and 17.30% shows the percentage of the critical situation. According to the findings, among the 15 plausible scenarios for the good governance of Shahr-e-Rey, there are 9 scenarios with a favorable situation, which show relatively promising conditions at the local management level.
As we get closer to the present, the need for an extra-local institution to manage the area of the smaller components of this complex has become a necessary and undeniable matter for many metropolitan areas of the world. The implemented metropolitan institutions are adaptable in general (such as the idea and logic of formation, scope of duties, territory under control, etc.), but in executive details (such as the method of formation, organizational structure, and the method of communication with other administrative levels) are influenced by the political system. and the specific planning of each country. The experience of metropolitan areas without local administration shows that the abandonment of areas and the separation of metropolitan tasks in the hands of administrations with special objectives and local administrations have caused many problems in these areas. The attitude of the current research is based on not accepting the foundations of this view, and it is based on the fact that insisting on reasons such as maintaining competition, innovation, or protecting the rights of individuals, at the local level, is a solid and reliable logic for entrusting the future development of the region to the successful implementation of local administrations and not Separation of functions between different components of the government structure. The non-separation and division of duties between the higher and lower levels of the metropolitan region causes a comprehensive approach in recognizing and solving problems, providing infrastructure and services, and a strategic plan for the future of the region, which is necessary for the activity of its various components, including statesmen, people and private sectors. The available evidence shows that what is always neglected in the country's urban management process at the micro level is mainly macro level issues and problems, and less attention is paid to micro level issues and problems. What has been popularized as local management in urban texts has led to extensive debates regarding the nature, importance and various issues of this level of cities, including their management. It seems that the realization of the mentioned approach in the urban management system of Iran, including in Tehran and Region 20, requires the reform of the urban management structure and objectification of citizens' participation. In this regard, localities have a special role and importance. In fact, urban neighborhoods are the focus and workshop of collaborative management and planning because they are considered the smallest unit of the spatial organization of the city.
In terms of the purpose, the research is of an applied type, which was carried out by a descriptive-analytical method based on documentary library studies and field surveys. In the first step, by reviewing the theoretical foundations and compiling 69 governance indicators in 8 dimensions, from the documentary method including the survey technique and questionnaire tools and interviews with the Delphi community, the influential indicators of urban governance in local management using the consensus index model to determine the importance, certainty and priority is used. The size of the statistical sample using the available sampling method, 27 experts with non-random or targeted sampling, including university faculty members, executive and administrative experts of the 20th region and experts in the field of governance has been done. In order to analyze the data, the structural equation modeling technique with the partial least square approach of the Smart PLS software was used to evaluate the conceptual model of the research. In the final part, drivers influencing good governance were used using the consensus index model to determine the importance, certainty and priority of the drivers. Qualitative data with open questionnaire and through interviews and document review and quantitative data used in this research were prepared numerically and by weighting Delphi questionnaires. After collecting the indicators and variables, the matrix of mutual effects based on the future research approach and exploratory analysis was formed with the help of Micmac software in two stages and the key and influential drivers on the development process and the future of governance within the next 10 years were identified. By identifying the components and primary drivers effective on the subject, based on the findings of the Delphi method and interviews with elites and executive officials from among the total of 69 sub-drivers, 47 key drivers were set in the eight dimensions of governance with a matrix width of 47x47 based on the analysis of the effects of intersection.
Results and discussion
The analysis of the path coefficients related to the 8 investigated dimensions shows that the legality index (L) has the highest influence, followed by the indicators of responsibility (Re), participation (P), justice (J), transparency (T), efficiency and effectiveness. (E), accountability (R), and then central consensus (C) have the least influence on the urban management structure. Therefore, the model of good urban governance, as one of the management models, has a positive effect on the local management structure. From the total of 237 states on the scenario page, 132 states and 55.70% are favorable states, 64 states and 27% are static states, and 41 states and 17.30% are critical states. This situation shows that almost half of the states on the scenario page are in the optimal state, followed by the static state and finally, the critical state has the lowest amount. According to the similarity of the scenarios, they can be divided into three groups, each of which includes several scenarios with almost common characteristics with little difference in one or more situations among the 15 main factors. These groups are as follows: favorable scenarios (including scenarios 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 15); Static scenarios (including scenarios: 1, 6, 10, 11, and 12) and crisis scenarios (including scenarios 4, 13, and 14). Among the believable scenarios for the favorable governance of Region 20, there are nine scenarios with a favorable situation, which show promising conditions for urban management in the future.
The demographic and economic developments of Tehran metropolis indicate the need to change the spatial planning and management system at the local and intermediate levels. In other words, if the management of these layers does not change in accordance with the social and economic changes that occur in them - that is, the independent managements of the territory at the middle levels do not move towards managerial integration - physical-spatial plans also lack the necessary ability to direct and control physical changes. And they will not have the space of Tehran metropolitan areas. Based on this, the growth and development outside the official boundaries and the growth and development of centers and residential centers around these centers have resulted in the formation of a large number of independent administrative and governmental territories within a single functional area, where each governmental territory or local administration has the right to The authority and authority to comment is in a part of the territory of the region, and there is no single government authority to make decisions and act in the entire metropolis. The available evidence shows that what is always neglected in the country's urban management process at the local level is mainly the issues and problems of metropolises, and less attention is paid to the issues and problems of local management. In region 20, due to the existence of issues such as the lack of proper distribution of uses and not following a single model for access to urban services, a high percentage of wear and tear, health and educational deficiencies in some localities, an unbalanced physical development pattern due to a high percentage of immigration, density and insecurity, inappropriate housing, low per capita urban services, the existence of numerous factories and industries and noise pollution and air pollution caused by their smoke in the environmental sector, as well as the centralized administrative system, oil-dependent economy, imbalance and lack of planning, indiscriminate migrations to the region 20 and the formation of informal settlements in the management sector, it is very difficult to realize the main indicators of governance in connection with the studies and evidence in the 20 region.
There is no funding support.
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper