عنوان مقاله [English]
The truth of livability considering that it refers to the degree of providing the necessities of a society based on the needs and capacity of the people of that society for the growth and development of rural settlements, or in other words, livability promotes quality of life and development of the concepts of the quality of people's living environment so that it provided the best ways of life for them. The present study was conducted to identify and explain the factors affecting the livability of rural settlements using the method of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and correlation coefficient as a survey method. In this research, 6543 heads of rural households in the city of Ilam were surveyed to identify and explain factors contributing to rural settlements' livability. Using Cochran's formula, the sample size was estimated to be 363 people, and the sample was selected randomly and the quota sampling method. In this study, a questionnaire was exerted, experts confirmed content validity, and reliability was verified by a pre-test and Cronbach's alpha of 0.864 percent.The results show that the social dimension with a correlation coefficient of 780/. and the explanation coefficient of 66.73%, the economic dimension with a correlation coefficient of 0.593 and the explanation coefficient of 73.66%, the physical dimension with a correlation coefficient of 587. and the explanatory factor of 68.12% and the environmental dimension with a correlation coefficient of 0.585 and an explanatory factor of 23.23% affect the livability of rural settlements in Ilam Township. The results also show that the most important factors affecting livability in the social dimension are working groups with 0.782, in the economic dimension the existence of savings and the appropriateness of living expenses in the village with 0.897 and 0.854, in the physical dimension access to service uses at the regional level with 821. 0 and in the environmental aspect, the lack of houses in the flood path is 0.794.
Since the beginning of human settlements, villages have been the center of civilization and progress, but in recent decades, the technology industry, production methods, etc., have undergone profound changes. In most developing countries, the development path is considered a challenge when it comes to national development, which arises from the growth and development of rural settlements. Therefore, as a comprehensive framework that is made of human development and society’s well-being based on the increase of the dual physical-environmental and cultural dimensions of each space. That is why its main and general meaning is that achieving livability or achieving the quality of planning or place can be sustainable if it considers broad economic, social, environmental and physical dimensions in rural settlements. Interchangeably, livability is a capability in the residential environment that allows for a peaceful, safe, valuable, interactive and stable residence with the social and psychological well-being of the inhabitants. As a result, only respecting nature and not wasting natural resources strengthen social life. It provides collective spaces and connections between places and activities. Based on this, today, livability planning provides villages with awareness and proper training to accept economic, social, and cultural changes. Last but certainly not least, it provides physical and environmental conditions in line with the development of settlements.
According to the Cochran formula, the sample size for this study is 363 people with descriptive, analytic and survey methods. In order to analyze the data and influence the livability of settlements in rural areas, the questionnaire is the main research tool. Experts in this field have confirmed the content validity of the items. A questionnaire with a Likert scale was developed to check the reliability of the sample of 30 people outside the original sample based on the variables prepared in four social, economic, physical, and environmental dimensions. Based on the necessary changes made to the mentioned questionnaire, the results obtained from the pre-test confirmed the reliability or acceptable reliability of the study and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.864%. For a more detailed examination of the topic and classification of variables, factor analysis and correlation coefficients have been exerted, as well as descriptive statistics. In order to obtain significant factors, Bartlett’s test, KMO coefficient, and T-value were applied, and the data was analyzed in SPSS and LISREL software to perform a factor analysis of varimax rotation.
Results and discussion
In the region’s ancient and historical past, the important factor in the livability of rural settlements has been the social factor. Today, management, training, and security are among the most important factors. Rural settlements can be made livable through effective and efficient management, which is defined by the performance of local officials. In fact, their positive performance in resolving village issues and problems with the help and participation of the people. As a result of the research, KOM is 0.715, Bartlett is 4025.509, with 325 degrees of freedom and significant level (Sig= 0.001). Keyser indicates that seven factors are above one with 66.73% and that management and education have the greatest impact on rural settlements' viability with 26.728%. In term of the economy of the villages, the fertile lands, forest, and pasture in the region contribute to 0.728. Bartlett 237.438 with a degree of freedom of 55, which is significant (sig=0.001), the employment and income factor with 30.45% showed the most significant impact on rural settlements' economic viability when considering the Keyser factor with 73.76%. As one of the major factors that determine the livability of settlements in a region, the expansion of transportation networks contributes to the availability of services, in order to receive these essential services, villages must have good roads and be located close to Ilam, the mother city of the province. There are 109 degrees of freedom with the KOM value of 0.811 and the Bartlett value (3493.706) at a significant level (sig=0.001), and in the Keyser factor, five factors have eigenvalues above on with 68.135. In the environmental aspect, the region has beautiful natural landscapes, springs, rivers, forests, gardens, and transportation, with 15.72 percent showing the greatest impact. According to KOM 0.785 and Bartlett 2941.726, which are at a significant level (sig=0.001), these landscapes have made villages more habitable. There are four factors that have specific value above one, which include 23.65% of rural settlements’ environmental viability
According to this study, livability is comprised of four interdependent economic, social, physical, and environmental dimensions. Socio-cultural viability is linked to how society is organized, people's sense of belonging to their place and their awareness of society. The economy provides jobs and income and meets the needs of the society. Housing, infrastructure facilities, transportation and public spaces for recreation and leisure determine the physical livability of rural areas. Natural resources, waste disposal capacities, and the relationship between humans and the environment are also considered as part of the environment. Furthermore, the results indicate that the social dimension, with 0.61, had the greatest impact on rural settlements' livability, followed by the economic dimensions, with 0.56, the physical dimension, with 0.32, and the environmental dimension, with 0.38.
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Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.