جانمایی و طراحی معماری فرمِ انبارهای اقلام اساسی و ضروری با رویکرد پدافند غیرعامل مطالعه موردی: شهر مشهد

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه معماری و شهرسازی، دانشکده معماری و شهرسازی، دانشگاه فنی و حرفه‌ای، تهران، ایران

2 دانشکده معماری، شهرسازی و هنر، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

10.30488/gps.2023.387843.3627

چکیده

استقرار مراکز حساس و حیاتی در قلب شهرها و وقوع حوادث پیش‌بینی‌نشده و با احتمال از میان رفتن سازمان خدمات‌رسانی موجود و اثرات مخرب آن بر سازمان اجتماعی و دفاعی جامعه هدف و لزوم تأمین نیازهای ضروری شهروندان، برنامه‌ریزی و ایجاد انبارهای اقلام اساسی و ضروری، به‌عنوان جایگزینی برای سازمان خدمات رسان آسیب‌دیده، به‌صورت عاملی مهم در پایداری اجتماعی و دفاعی، محسوب می‌شود. این پژوهش سعی بر آن دارد تا با تکیه‌بر معیارهای پدافند غیرعامل به جانمایی انبارهای اقلام ضروری در مشهد پرداخته و الگوهای مختلف فضایی و معماری را بر حسب نقش و فرم، بررسی نماید. نوع تحقیق، کاربردی و روش تحقیق در بحث مبانی نظری و تدوین مدل فکری، توصیفی- تحلیلی و روش‌های گردآوری اطلاعات، اسنادی، پرسشنامه و مصاحبه می‌باشد و در بخش مکان‌یابی، روش تجزیه‌وتحلیل اطلاعات با مدل IHWP در نرم‌افزار GIS و در بخش بررسی الگو و فرم‌های معماری، تحلیل محتوا می‌باشد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد 61/20 درصد شهر مشهد دارای پتانسیل جانمایی بهینه و 94/0 درصد شهر نیز دارای پتانسیل مطلوب جهت جانمایی برخوردار بوده و همچنین بخش‌هایی از شمال شرق و جنوب شهر دارای اولویت اول جانمایی می‌باشند. در بخش معماری، انواع سازمان‌دهی فضایی فرم مستطیلی شامل متمرکز، چهار بازو، درون‌گرا و قطری بررسی شد که فرم متمرکز به جهت ظرفیت و گنجایش و دسترسی به خروجی‌ها و ساماندهی فضایی دارای ارجحیت نسبت به سایر فرم‌ها می‌باشد

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Locating and Architectural Design of Forms on Stockpile of Essential Items with Approach Passive Defense the Case Study of Mashhad City

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parya Shafipour yourdshahi 1
  • aram khezerlou 2
1 Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, Technical and Vocational University, Tehran
2 Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Urban Planning and Art, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

A B S T R A C T
Considering the location of vital centers in the heart of the cities, they are more affected by unexpected events. Hence, due to the probability of the loss of existing services and devastating effects on the social organization and the necessity to prepare essential needs of people and military agencies, planning and building the storage for essential items as a replacement for the damaged services are considered a critical factor in social and defensive reliability. This research tries to locate stockpile of essential Items in Mashhad by emphasizing passive defense criteria and analyzing stockpiles of essential items in terms of form communicational structure. The type of research is applied, and the research method is in theoretical discussion and formulation of mental models, descriptive-analytical and information-gathering methods, documents, questionnaires, and interviews. Moreover, the information analysis method is with the IHWP model in GIS software in the locating section. In the section on examining architectural patterns and forms is content analysis. The research results show that 20.61 percent of Mashhad has an optimal location potential, and 0.94 percent of city also has a favorable potential for location. Also, parts of the north-east and south of the city have the priority for location. The types of spatial organization of the rectangular form, including centralized, four-armed, introverted, and diagonal, were investigated in the architecture department. The centralized form is preferable to other forms for its capacity and access to exits and spatial organization
Extended Abstract
Introduction
As a stockpile of essential items to facilitate the process of activities and to achieve goals, the warehouse plays a vital role in creating this flexibility in organizations. In fact, from the point of view of crisis management, the stockpile of essential items can play a significant role in the supply chain to deal with unforeseen internal or external incidents. Passive defense in the stockpile of essential items refers to measures that do not require expensive and challenging methods and solutions to protect the stockpile of essential items. Furthermore, it can help avoid the substantial expenses of monitoring the entire inventory and increasing non-conformities (such as theft, fire, non-conformity in the inventory and management inspection, fatal accidents, etc.) or reduce this amount. Choosing the form of the stockpile of essential items for essential items with a passive defense approach requires a comprehensive analysis based on defense principles such as hierarchical protection, nationwide coverage, dynamic protection, relative self-sufficiency, and minimum vulnerability. Therefore, in addition to placing this category of stockpile of essential items in Mashhad, the mentioned research also tries to establish a relationship between architectural forms and principles of defense to reduce vulnerability and improve the level of relief in times of crisis.
 
Methodology
The current type of research is applied, and the research method is descriptive-analytical. In this research, 29 people were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews with urban and passive defense experts. The method of data analysis is quantitative and qualitative. Also, the content analysis method was used to compile and analyze the architectural forms of the stockpile of essential items of essential items compatible with the principles of passive defense. The fuzzy quantitative model IHWP was exploited in GIS software for placing the stockpile of essential items in the studied sample.
 
Results and discussion
Locating
From the overlaying of 10 indicators, distance from the fault, height of buildings, distance from gas lines, distance from high voltage power lines, road width, building density, risk of uses, distance from water transmission lines, population density, and land prone to liquefaction, location in 10 class was conducted that the first and second priority is the north-east and south of Mashhad, which has the most favorable location. In Mashhad, 17.2% of the city area has a very low score, 12.8% low score, 48.37% medium score, 20.61% high score, and 0.94% very high score regarding location desirability.
 
Architecture
According to the previous studies on geometric forms, the suitable form for warehouse design is a simple form that does not have frequent breaks and sharp and vague points to reduce the spatial deviation. Among the geometrical shapes, square and rectangular right-cornered shapes meet the criteria of warehouse design. In the meantime, the rectangle can define joints along its length, each of which is a focal point for concentrating activities and organizing their performance. Additionally, the internal spaces in this form are reasonably defined, which results in the building's overall form being overshadowed. This also makes the surrounding accesses more targeted and focused, ultimately providing more suitable relief during times of crisis.
In order to create four types of stockpiles of essential items, A (centralized), B (four arms), C (introverted), and D (polar) were designed, and the way of combining these stockpiles of essential items was expressed and analyzed separately. The research results on accesses and circulation shows that type A covers a population of over 100,000 people, which has the best performance in terms of access to exits and spatial organization and provides services in times of crisis. Therefore, type A, due to the sequence of layers, lines, and expansion on the surface, has the most functional symmetry with the body of the warehouse, and its spatial projection is limited to adapt the shell to the body. Visually, it has the least visibility from a high height. Due to its volume and formal indicators, it has a high level of homogeneity and camouflage with its surrounding environment.
 
Conclusion
The results of placing stockpiles of essential items in Mashhad showed that the northeast and south of the city have a higher talent for establishment. According to the examination of geometric forms, the rectangular form has the most efficiency for warehouse design in the architecture area. Due to formal capabilities such as the value of lines, angles, and proportions, it has the most efficiency in terms of performance, motion circulation, and the least spatial deviation. In order to research as mentioned above, after choosing the dominant form of the rectangle, an attempt has been made to analyze the spatial organization of the rectangular form using linear, combined, decomposition, and combination methods and centripetal and radial arrangements in terms of passive defense principles. Furthermore, four different types of warehouse design were formally analyzed as patterns and representative types, which are four arms, centralized, introverted, and diagonal, each of which, in addition to functional capabilities, also covers the population's needs in crisis conditions. Finally, the concentrated type due to the extent of its successive lines and layers in close proximity to each other, the perceptibility of the surfaces of the body joints because it can be recognized from a high altitude in order not to be identified in times of crisis such as air raid, they have the highest degree of compatibility between function and form from the point of view of passive defense.
 
Funding
There is no funding support.
 
Authors’ Contribution
All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
 
 
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
 
Acknowledgments
We are grateful to all the scientific

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Stockpile of Essential Items
  • Locating
  • Architectural form
  • Mashhad city
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