ارزیابی شاخص‌های عینی شهر سبز در کلان‌شهر مشهد

نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

10.30488/gps.2023.381265.3610

چکیده

شهر سبز یکی از رویکردهای توسعه پایدار است که سبب کاهش ردپای محیط‌زیستی شهرها می‌شود. هدف این پژوهش ارزیابی وضعیت کلان‌شهر مشهد ازنظر ویژگی‌های عینی شهر سبز است. در این پژوهش از 14 شاخص سرانه برق مصرفی، سرانه فضای سبز، تراکم جمعیت، برخورداری از آب، برخورداری از فاضلاب، شبکه حمل‌ونقل عمومی برتر، حمل‌ونقل انبوه شهری، کاهش ترافیک، سرانه سالانه ضایعات تولیدی، مونواکسید کربن، میزان غلظت دی‌اکسید نیتروژن، میزان غلظت دی‌اکسید گوگرد، میزان غلظت ذرات معلق و کیفیت هوا استفاده‌شده است. این پژوهش به لحاظ هدف از نوع کاربردی و به لحاظ ماهیت از نوع توصیفی – تحلیلی است. به‌منظور تعیین اهمیت شاخص‌های تحقیق از روش آنتروپی شانون و جهت تعیین وضعیت مناطق شهر مشهد ازنظر شاخص‌های شهر سبز از روش تصمیم‌گیری چند معیاره ویکور استفاده‌شده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان داد که اکثر مناطق شهر مشهد در شرایط متوسط و پایین‌تر از متوسط ازنظر ویژگی‌های شهر سبز قرار دارد و تنها منطقه نه در وضعیت بسیار خوبی ازنظر ویژگی‌های شهر سبز قرار دارد. به‌طورکلی میانگین ویکور در شهر مشهد (636/0) گویای ضرورت برنامه‌ریزی جامع در حوزه برنامه‌ریزی اکولوژیک با رویکرد شهر سبز و ارائه چارچوب برنامه‌ریزی سازمانی در جهت تحقق آن در کلان‌شهر مشهد است که مدیریت شهری، سازمان آب، اداره برق و سایر دستگاه‌های مربوطه از طریق هم‌افزایی و مدیریت جامع و یکپارچه می‌توانند در جهت تحقق آن برآیند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Objective Indicators of the Green City in Mashhad

نویسندگان [English]

  • sayed mostafa hosseini
  • Mohammad Rahim Rahnama
  • mohammad ajza shokouhi
  • omid ali khaarazmi
Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

A B S T R A C T
Green city is one of the approaches to sustainable development. “green city” is an environmentally friendly city compatible with the concept of sustainable development and can be used for the welfare and security of its inhabitants. Based on the concept of a “green city,” urban managers try to have the least destructive effect on the ecosystems upon which cities rely. Green city is one of the sustainable development approaches that reduce the environmental footprint of cities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the situation of Mashhad metropolis in terms of the objective characteristics of the green city. In this study, 14 indicators of electricity consumption per capita, green space per capita, population density, water availability, sewage availability, superior public transportation network, urban mass transportation, traffic reduction, annual production waste per capita, carbon monoxide, concentration nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide concentration, particulate matter concentration, and air quality were exerted. To determine the importance of research indicators, the Shannon entropy method, and the status of Mashhad city areas in terms of green city indicators, the VIKOR multi-criteria decision-making method has been applied. The results showed that most areas of Mashhad are average and below average in terms of green city characteristics, and only District 9 is in very good condition (0.636). Also, based on the results of this part of the research, District 5, with the value of VIKOR index of 0.969, is in the last rank in terms of objective characteristics of the green city
Extended Abstract
Introduction
Green city is one of the approaches to sustainable development. A “Green city” is an environmentally friendly city compatible with the concept of sustainable development and can be used for the welfare and security of its inhabitants. Based on the concept of a “green city,” urban managers try to have the least destructive effect on the ecosystems upon which cities rely. Green cities constantly try to manage their environmental effects by reducing waste, increasing recycling, reducing air pollution, increasing population density, developing open urban spaces, and encouraging the development of sustainable local businesses.
Green cities were first used to evaluate 30 European cities by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) in 2009 with the financial support of Siemens and the aim of reducing the environmental effects of human activities in cities. In that study, eight indices of carbon dioxide, energy, construction, transportation, water, recycling and land use, air quality, and environmental governance were used. Later, the Economist Intelligence Unit, with the financial support of Siemens, evaluated the status of the green city index in 17 Latin American cities, 15 African cities, 22 major Asian cities, and 27 cities in United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. In recent years, even some Western Islamic scholars have, in various publications, shown that Islam is an ecological religion. In Iran, the issue of protecting the environment has not received much attention regardless of its rich cultural and religious background and its confirmation in Article 50 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Mashhad is the second metropolis of Iran, located in North-East of Iran, and is one of the counties of Khorasan Razavi Province. According to the 2016 Iranian Population and Housing Census, its population was 3057679 people (The Vice-Presidency of Planning and Development of Mashhad Municipality). In Mashhad, due to several reasons including the presence of Imam Reza Shrine (PBUH) and arrival of millions of pilgrims per year, population growth, increased garbage production (production of 896534 tons of garbage in 2016 (The Vice-Presidency of Planning and Development of Mashhad Municipality), air pollution (increased number of unhealthy days from 46 days per year in 2015 to 88 days in 2016 for sensitive groups and 4 days of unhealthy air for all groups in 2016 (Center for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants of Mashhad Municipality) the 2025 vision of the city has paid attention to the environment in the form of five general objectives; however, just like the national level, no specific pattern for environmentally-compatible urban development, such as green city, is determined.
Analysis of the green city index in Mashhad metropolis can considerably contribute to urban managers and planners in addition to providing a pattern for evaluating the present situation in other cities of Iran and improving the quality of life regardless of the current status of the urban environment in Iranian cities; we can preserve these environments as parts of the natural environment for future generations.
 
Methodology
In terms of its goal, the present study is an applied one; in the study, drawing upon other studies and library sources and considering the conditions of Iran and the metropolis of Mashhad in terms of green city, 14 quantitative indices were exerted. To this end, the required data for the quantitative indices was gathered by library research from the relevant institutions. Next, the weights of quantitative indices were determined using Shannon's entropy. Then, using the VIKOR method of multi-criteria decision-making, the status of various districts of the metropolis of Mashhad in terms of quantitative indices of green city was determined. Finally, the map of the spatial distribution of quantitative indices was drawn using the ARC GIS software package.
 
Results and discussion
In this study, to analyze the status of the metropolis of Mashhad in terms of green city features, 14 quantitative indices were used. Considering the value of the VIKOR index ranges from 0 to 1, various districts of Mashhad can be classified into five categories; very satisfactory, satisfactory, average, unsatisfactory, and very unsatisfactory in terms of quantitative indices of green city. The results of the current situation of Mashhad showed that in terms of objective indicators of the green city, District 9 of Mashhad metropolis with a value of VIKOR index of 0.056 is in first place, and the seventh region with a value of VIKOR index of 0.433 is in second place. Also, based on the results of this part of the research, District 5, with the value of VIKOR index of 0.969, is in the last rank in terms of objective characteristics of the green city.
 
Conclusion
Similarly, the results of studies by Afshar (2011) and Shabani et al. (2017) on Tehran metropolis are indicative of the unsatisfactory situation of Tehran (the biggest metropolis of Iran) in terms of green city features. Comparing the results of the studies by Afshar (2011) and Shabani et al. (2017) with the present study on Mashhad (the second biggest metropolis of Iran) reveals the necessity for a comprehensive plan toward achieving green cities. It should be mentioned that, due to the specific conditions of Mashhad metropolis and availability or unavailability of the required data, the indices used in the present study are somewhat different from the ones used by Afshar (2011) and Shabani et al. (2017).
 
Funding
There is no funding support.
 
Authors’ Contribution
All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
 
 
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
 
Acknowledgments
We are grateful to all the scientific

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Shannon Entropy
  • Objective Index
  • Green City
  • Mashhad
  • VIKOR
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