عنوان مقاله [English]
Living and accessing healthy urban spaces is one of the most important indicators of social and environmental justice. As urban sprawl in developing countries has increased, unequal opportunities have been created for citizens to access healthy urban spaces. And from this perspective, justice has not been respected in the city. . With increasing environmental problems in urban environments, especially metropolitan areas, and the emergence of management problems such as space inequalities and land use change in cities, urban environmental health has become an important issue in urban planning. In the present study, two concepts of spatial justice and environmental health in urban areas of Tehran metropolitan area were investigated. The main purpose in this study is assessment of spatial inequality of urban environmental health indicators among metropolitan areas of Tehran. To investigate this, the UHI model used by the World Health Organization for measuring health in urban areas has been used as well as the advanced CommunityVIZ software that works in the ArcGIS environment. The results of the study show that there are inequalities in urban environmental health indicators among Tehran metropolitan areas. And this inequality follows a cluster pattern, with the north and northwestern regions having better health status than the central and southwestern regions of Tehran metropolis. The results also show that there is a strong correlation between economic, social, environmental-spatial indicators and urban environmental health index. This suggests that any action to promote urban health is not possible without regard to relevant indicators and requires an integrated urban development plan.
11. Anguelovski, Isabelle,2013. New Directions in Urban Environmental Justice: Rebuilding Community, Addressing Trauma, and Remaking Place, Journal of Planning Education and Research, 33: 160–175.
12. Chee Wong, Tai, and Belinda Yuen, 2011. Eco-city Planning Policies, Practice and Design. Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York.
13. Corburn, Jason, 2017. Concepts for Studying Urban Environmental Justice, Curr Envir Health Rpt. 4:61–67.
14. Dahlgren, G., and Whitehead M. 1991. Policies and Strategies to Promote Social Equity in Health. Stockholm, Sweden: Institute for Futures Studies.
15. Danladi M., Haruna, 2015. Delphi method of developing environmental well-being indicators for the evaluation of urban sustainability in Malaysia, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 244-249.
16. Freudenberg, N., Susan Klitzman, and Susan Saegert, 2009. Urban health and society: interdisciplinary approaches to research and practice, John Wiley & Sons.
17. Friel. Sharon, Trevor Hancock, Tord Kjellstrom, Gordon McGranahan, Patricia Monge, and Joyashree Roy. 2011. Urban Health Inequities and the Added Pressure of Climate Change: An Action-Oriented Research Agenda, Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 88(5): 886-895.
18. Frumkin، H. 2005. environmental health:From Global to Local, Wiley & Sons.
19. Galea, S., and David Vlahov, 2005. Handbook of urban health: populations, methods, and practice, Springer Science+ Business Media, Inc.
20. Hancock, Trevor, Ron Labonte, Rick Edwards. 1990. Indicators that Count! Measuring Population Health, Canadian journal of public health. 90: 22-26.
21. Hancock, T. 2002. Indicators of Environmental Health in the Urban Setting, Canadian Journal of Public Health. Vol. 93
22. Harpham, Trudy and Edmond Werna. 1996. Sustainable Urban Health in Developing Countries. Habitat Intl. 20(3): 421-429.
23. Haruna, D., Mohd Rusli Yacob, Ahmad Makmom Abdullah, Mohd Yusoff Ishak, 2015. “Delphi Method of Developing Environmental Well being Indicators for the Evaluation of Urban Sustainability in Malaysia”. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 30: 244-249.
24. Hossain Khan, Mobarak. 2012. Urban health in megacities of developing countries. Public Health Forum 20 Heft 75.
25. Hossain, M., M Moniruzzaman, and Islam, M.A. 2010. “Urban Environmental Health in Bangladesh Slum: A Comparative Study of Two Metropolitan Cities." J. Sci. Foundation. pp.67-76.
26. Kitchin, Rob and et al. 2009. International Encycolcopedia of Human Geography. Elsevier Ltd.
27. Kjellstrom, Tord et al. 2007. Urban Environmental Health Hazards and Health Equity. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, Vol. 84: 86-97.
28. L. Bell, M., and et al., 2011. "Environmental health indicators and a case study of air pollution in Latin American cities." Environmental Research، 57-66.
29. Lawanson, Taibat O. and Samson Fadare, Neighborhood differentials and environmental health interface in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. Habitat International 39: 240-245.
30. Lawrence, Roderick, J. 2012. Urban Health Challenges in Europe. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine,. 90: 23-36.
31. Lawrence, R. 2008. Urban Environmental Health Indicators: Appraisal and Policy Directives, Reviews on Environmental Health. pp. 299-325.
32. London Health Commission, 2008. Health inequalities and equality impact assessment of Healthcare for London: consulting the capital’. Scientific Annex 2: rapid evidence review and appraisal. London: London Health Commission.
33. Mahdi, A. 2016. Analysis of effective environmental factors an urban health, a case study of Qom, Iran, Habitat International, 55: 89-99.
34. Mckee, Kathryn, 2016. The Catfish Industry and Spatial Justice in the Mississippi Delta: Steve Yarbrough’s The Oxygen Man. Journal of American Studies,50: 853-871.
35. Michael, B., Steeve Ebener, Patricia Najera Aguilar, Manuel Vidaurre & Zine El Morjani,2004. Using GIS to Measure Physical Accessibility to Health Care. World Health Organization.
36. Ministry of Health, 2009. Environmental Health Indicators for New Zealand 2008. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
37. Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, Andreas . 2010. Spatial justice: law and the geography of withdrawal. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(3): 201–216
38. Rothenberg, Richard, Scott R. Weaver, Dajun Dai, Christine Stauber, Amit Prasad, and Megumi Kano , 2014. A Flexible Urban Health Index for Small Area Disparities. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 91(5): 823-835.
39. Song, W., Li, Y., Hao, Z., Li, H., and Wang, W. 2016. Public health in China: An environmental and socio-economic perspective”. Atmospheric Environment, 129: 9-17.
40. WHO, 1999. Environmental health indicators: framework and methodologies, Nene Centre for Research, University College Northampton.
41. Wickliffe, D. 2006. Evaluation of Community Viz Software As a tool for Planning Boards. report\Evaluating CommunityVizReport.doc, 2006.
42. Wickliffe, David, 2006. Evaluation of Community Viz Software As a tool for Planning Boards. S:\d-grenld\d-projects\d-DevPropApp\dreport\EvaluatingCommunityVizReport.doc.
43. World Health Organization, 2014. The Urban Health Index: A Handbook for its Calculation and Use. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data.