نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
گروه جغرافیا، واحد تهران مرکزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
A B S T R A C T
Community-oriented development is an approach based on which urban management supports the participation of community members in decision-making and management, to use local knowledge and resources to implement more effective projects that play an effective role in urban development and citizen satisfaction, as well as the positive performance of managers. Therefore, it is considered one of the important categories of urban management. In this regard, the current research tries to provide a model of community-oriented urban management in Ahvaz City. For this purpose, the basic and standard dimensions of the community-oriented development approach, which includes social-oriented development based on capacity, cultural identity, social justice, empowerment, strengthening social participation, and social responsibility; It has been analyzed using the structural equation model and PLS software. The research method is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. The statistical population is experts and senior and middle managers of Ahvaz municipality. Using Cochran's formula, 383 people were selected as the sample size. The results of the pls analysis showed social participation index with a coefficient of 0.857, social responsibility index with a path coefficient of 0.675, social justice index with a path coefficient of 0.542, community-oriented development with a path coefficient of 0.448, empowerment with a path coefficient of 0.427 and cultural identity with a path coefficient of 0.412 respectively have the greatest impact on community-oriented urban management. Using this index in practice, although they differ in terms of importance, they should be taken into consideration in an integrated manner and together, and the greater importance of an index should not lead to ignoring other principles
Community-based development is one of the new approaches that pay attention to the social and cultural issues of the target groups, and its propositions are opposed to the modernization approaches. Community-based development (CBD) is an approach to implementing local development projects that supports the participation of community members in decision-making and management, with the aim of using local knowledge and resources to implement more effective projects. The World Bank (2022) believes that approaches and actions based on community-based development are important elements of an effective poverty reduction strategy and sustainable development. In many countries, community-based development is the only available mechanism for timely and reliable access to marginalized and vulnerable groups during the development process. Undoubtedly, trying to create a lively and dynamic environment in the city that all citizens can benefit from is not something that relies solely on urban engineering options and looks at everything from top to bottom. Considering the continuous growth of the population and its emerging and permanent challenges on the one hand and the increasing concentration of the population in urban areas, it is not surprising that experts in this field adopt newer and community-based measures.
Ahvaz metropolis is a city with a diversity of ethnic groups and human and environmental potentials on the one hand and on the other hand, different neighborhoods with demographic composition, undesirable infrastructures, and socio- economic consequences left over from the war, environmental issues, etc., which in total makes urban management necessary to adopt special models that focus on the mentioned variables. Therefore, according to these characteristics, we seek to present a community-based urban management model in Ahvaz city in this research.
In terms of nature and purpose, this study is descriptive-analytical and applied, respectively. According to the study of Ahvaz city in Khuzestan province, it is included in the research category. The data collection method is one of the two predominant documentary methods - library and field, and the research tool is a questionnaire. The statistical community of the research was formed by experts and city managers in Ahvaz municipality. The validity of the questionnaire was face-to-face, as it was done by 20 professors and doctoral students who have studied and researched the subject so far. The criterion for their selection was their theoretical mastery, research records, and willingness to participate. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.749 with Cronbach's test, which shows the reliability of the questionnaire. The structural equation method and PLS model have been used for data analysis.
Results and discussion
In order to measure the fit of the measurement model, the reliability of indicators, convergent validity and divergent validity were used. Considering that the Average Variance Extracted Index (AVE) for all research variables is above 0.5, therefore, the convergent validity of the model variables is confirmed. Also, the combined reliability coefficient (CR) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient for all research variables are more than 0.7, so the reliability of the variable questions in the questionnaire is acceptable. To check the divergent validity, the comparison of the correlation of a construct with its indicators against the correlation of that construct with other constructs was used using the Fornell and Locker method. According to the data algorithm in PLS, after fitting the measurement models, it is time to fit the structural model. According to the results, the value of the t statistic obtained for the impact of cultural identity on community-based urban management is equal to 2.09, for the impact of social justice on urban management it is equal to 3.72, for empowerment on urban management it is equal to 2.19, for the impact Social responsibility on urban management is equal to 4.89, for the impact of social participation on management it is equal to 2.18. The impact of community-based development on urban management is equal to 3.84, so these values are more than 1.96. Therefore, the impact of identified variables on community-based urban management is confirmed. Also, according to the obtained path coefficient, the impact of the identified variables on community-based urban management is positive.
The results show that the highest level of influence on the community-oriented urban management model is related to the social participation index. Therefore, the social participation index is one of the basic components for realizing community-based urban management. Furthermore, the effort to strengthen is not hidden from anyone because it plays a strategic role in the success of community-based urban management. Avoiding it makes urban management hard-hit and vulnerable and will cause distance between city managers and people. On this basis, social participation is a tool to strengthen urban management in today's advanced societies and is considered one of the life indicators of different societies. The diversity and complexity of urban issues, along with executive and management problems, show the necessity of citizens' participation in urban issues.
There is no funding support.
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.