عنوان مقاله [English]
A B S T R A C T
The right to the city in urban development goes beyond the physical form and, at the same time, has a mental and social meaning, which has been popularized in planning theory and urban studies after its proposal by Lefebvre. This theory focuses on the residents and the distinctive features of the space and believes that the right to the city can only be formulated as the right to the evolved and renewed urban life. Based on descriptive-explanatory purpose, this research seeks to spatially analyze the components of right to the city in Bandar Abbas. Therefore, after collecting 77 subjective and objective measures around the research components, the multi-criteria decision-making technique of COPRAS has been exploited to integrate the data in the ArcMap Tools. The findings show that in the current state of urban development in Bandar Abbas, the right to the city in all its aspects, the right to ownership, the right to participation and the right to difference for the residents have been weakened and ignored. A share of up to 20.7% of the city space, which is mainly directed to the wealthy neighborhoods and parts of the central areas of the city, as well as parts of new developments, the right to the city has been more manifested, and in about 19.8% of the city spaces. Mainly applicable to informal settlements and slums of the city, this right has been undermined and ignored
The right to the city as a physical, mental and social concept seeks a fundamental change in dealing with urban planning and development issues, which has been popularized in planning theory and urban studies after its proposal by Lefebvre. This theory focuses on the residents and the distinctive features of the space and believes that the right to the city can only be formulated as the right to the evolved and renewed urban life. In other words, this theory is a call for the priority of the consumption value of the city against its exchange value, which can only be pursued through the analysis of urban issues in the framework of the "city space" metaphor in the right to the city. It is a fundamental change in the city to create opportunities and space for citizens to meet and achieve their needs.
From a descriptive-explanatory purpose, this research seeks to spatially analyze the explanatory components of urban development in Bandar Abbas from the perspective of the right to the city. In this research, by collecting 77 subjective and objective measures, the COPRAS multi-criteria decision-making technique has been used to integrate data in the ArcMap environment. Citizens are the source of mental data, official documents and maps are the objective data, and experts are the relative weight of the criteria. It should be mentioned that to guarantee the validity of the content based on the guidance of supervisors and advisors, the collective opinion of university experts and the use of similar studies were exerted. The reliability of the questionnaire was also tested by Cronbach's alpha method, and the value of the alpha coefficient (0.866) indicates the high reliability of the questionnaire.
Results and discussion
The findings show that in the current state of urban development in Bandar Abbas, the right to the city in all its aspects, including the right to possession, the right to participation, and the right to difference for the residents, has been weakened and ignored. A review of the findings shows that the social function of the city's real estate and land, with a coefficient of 0.136, followed by environmental justice, with a coefficient of 0.131, has the greatest impact on the urban development of Bandar Abbas. On the other hand, socio-spatial justice in the process of taking over space, with a coefficient of 0.106, shows the lowest level of influence in the development of Bandar Abbas compared to other components of the right to the city. The results show that about 20% of the area of Bandar Abbas city is in a very unfavorable situation compared to the components of urban development based on the right to the city approach. These areas of the city are spaces where the residents' right to the city has been severely denied, and they are deprived of taking over the city space.
In this regard, the results show that 20.7% of the city's space, mainly focused on wealthy neighborhoods, parts of the city's central areas, and parts of Mehr's housing, has the right to a greater manifestation of the city. The city's space is more in line with its residents. As shown in the spatial distribution of the urban development components of Bandar Abbas based on the right to the city approach, the possession of space through the right to presence, the accessibility of residents to the opportunities and resources of the city, as well as the fair distribution of facilities and services play a decisive role in urban development. However, as the results show, it is the difference that gives meaning to the urban space, and therefore the space must provide the conditions for the city to play a role in meeting the needs of all city groups. The requirement of this role is the central position of the residents in making decisions about the city space, which is a unique way to realize the right to the city.
As Brenner states, the right to the city is a call to create "cities for people, not for profit." In this definition, urban development is more than a physical thing and has a mental and social dimension at the same time. In terms of the right to the city, the right to possession, the right to participation, and the right to difference form the trinity of urban development and the guiding light of these three principles that determine the quality of a different city. Unfortunately, urban development in Bandar Abbas has weakened and denied residents' rights. The zoning resulting from the spatial analysis shows that about 19.8% of the city's spaces, which mainly correspond to informal settlements and poor neighborhoods, this right has been weakened and ignored. From the theoretical aspect of the right to the city, this event originates from the space as an economic and physical thing exchanged in the market, not a consumption thing formed by the citizens and in social interaction with the space.
There is no funding support.
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.